NRE 516 - Aquatic Entomology

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Notes on Morphology / Synonomies / List of Taxa Presented / References

Lab Notes for the Aquatic Hemiptera (Heteroptera) - “True Bugs”

Notes on Morphology and the Taxonomy of Immatures

Most aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera have 5 nymphal instars; exceptions with only 4 nymphal instars include Mesovelia (Mesoveliidae), Microvelia (Veliidae), and Nepa (Nepidae). Nymphs of aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera have 1-segmented tarsi, while adults have 2 tarsal segments on at least some legs. This is useful in discriminating adults and nymphs of apterous Gerridae and Veliidae. Note that keys in Hilsenhoff (1995) and Polhemus (1996) are for Hemiptera adults. Keys for separation of nymphs (often last instars) are presented in Usinger

Key to Notonectidae Nymphs (from Usinger 1956):

1a Tarsi 2-segmented, with 2 claws Notonectidae (adults)
1b Tarsi 1-segmented Notonectidae (nymphs), 2
2a a. Ab spiricles large and oval, 1/4 as long as segments, located mesad of ventral hair fringe Buenoa
b. hind legs without rows of conspicuous stout spines
2b a. Ab spiracles small and round, less than 1/10 as long as segments Notonecta
b. hind legs with rows of short, stout, black spines

Key to Belostomatidae Nymphs (from Usinger 1956)

1a Tarsi 2-segmented Belostomatidae (adults)
1b Tarsi 1-segmented Belostomatidae (nymphs), 2
2a Tarsi of Th1 with 2 well-developed claws Lethocerus
2b Tarsi of Th1 with 1 well-developed claw Belostoma, Abedus

Notes on Morphology / Synonomies / List of Taxa Presented / References

Synonomies for Selected Michigan Taxa

Neoplea = Plea
Neogerris = Limnogonus
Aquarius = Gerris (part)
Limnoporus = Gerris (part)

Notes on Morphology / Synonomies / List of Taxa Presented / References

List of Taxa Presented

You must be able to identify in a lab exam the following taxa, larvae to genus, adults to family, either by sight or using a taxonomic resource. Taxa denoted in blue are to be identified by sight, those in black are taxa to be identified using any resource you wish within a set period of time (e.g., 1 minute). (Taxa that are blank will not be presented during an exam).

Suborder Family Genus Vial Stage Required Identification
Nepomorpha Belostomatidae Belostoma H-01 A, N Visual, Key
Belostomatidae Lethocerus H-02 A, N Visual, Key
Corixidae Hesperocorixa H-03 A Visual
Corixidae Sigara H-04 A Visual
Corixidae Trichocorixa H-05 A Visual
Gelastocoridae Gelastocoris H-06 A Key
Naucoridae Pelocoris H-07 A Key
Nepidae Ranatra H-08 A Visual
Notonectidae Buenoa H-09 A, N Visual, Key
Notonectidae Notonecta H-10 A, N Visual, Key
Pleidae Neoplea H-11 A Key
Leptopodomorpha Saldidae   H-12 A Key
Gerromorpha Gerridae Aquarius H-20 A Visual
Gerridae Gerris H-13 A Visual
Gerridae Rheumatobates H-14 A Key
Gerridae Trepobates H-15 A Key
Hydrometridae Hydrometra H-16 A Visual
Mesoveliidae Mesovelia H-17 A, N Key
Veliidae Microvelia H-18 A Key
Veliidae Rhagovelia H-19 A, N Visual

Notes on Morphology / Synonomies / List of Taxa Presented / References

Recommended Readings

  • Schuh RT., Slater JA. 1995. True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Classification and Natural History. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. xii + 336 pp.
  • Usinger RL. 1956. Aquatic Hemiptera. Ch. 7, pp. 182-228 in: R. L. Usinger, ed., Aquatic Insects of California. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley. (General biology, keys to eggs, nymphs, and adults).

Additional References

  • Andersen NM. 1982. The semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha): phylogeny, adaptations, biogeography and classification. Entomonograph Volume 3, Scandinavian Science Press Ltd., Klampenborg, Denmark.
  • Bennett DV, Cook EF. 1981. The semi-aquatic Hemiptera of Minnesota (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Minnesota Agricultural Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 332:1-59.
  • Calabrese DM. 1974. Keys to the adults and nymphs of the species of Gerris Fabricius occurring in Connecticut. 25th Anniversary Memorial of the Connecticut Entomology Society, pp. 227-266.
  • Dolling WR. 1991. The Hemiptera. Oxford University Press,  London: 274 pp.
  • Henry TJ, Froeschner RC (eds). 1988. Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United  States. E. J. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands.
  • Hilsenhoff WL. 1970. Corixidae of Wisconsin. Proceedings of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 58: 203-235.
  • Hilsenhoff WL. 1986. Semiaquatic Hemiptera of Wisconsin. The Great Lakes Entomologist 19(1):7-19.
  • Hilsenhoff WL. 1970. Corixidae of Wisconsin. Proceedings of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 58: 203-235.
  • Hussey RF. 1919. The waterbugs (Hemiptera) of the Douglas Lake region, Michigan. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 75:1-23.
  • Jansson K. 1986. The Corixidae (Heteroptera) of Europe and some adjacent regions. Acta Entomologica Fennici 47: 1-94.
  • Lauck DR, Menke AS. 1961. The higher classification of the Belostomatidae (Hemiptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 54: 644-657.
  • Menke AS. 1979. The semiaquatic and aquatic Hemiptera of California (Heteroptera: Hemiptera). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 21. 166 pp.
  • Schuh RT. 1986. The influence of cladistics on heteropteran classification. Annual Review of Entomology 31: 67-94.
  • Scudder GGE. 1971. The Gerridae (Hemiptera) of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of  British Columbia 68:3-10.
  • Smith C, Polhemus JT. 1978. The Veliidae (Heteroptera) of America north of Mexico - keys and checklist. Proceedings of the  Entomological Society of Washington 80:56-68.
  • Vepsäläinen K, Krajewski S. 1986. Identification of the waterstrider (Gerridae) nymphs of northern Europe. Annales Entomologica Fennici 52: 63-77.
  • Wheeler, WC, Schuh RT, Bang R. 1993. Cladistic relationships among higher groups of Heteroptera: congruence between morphological and molecular data sets. Entomologica scandandivia 24:121-137.

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